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بررسی پیامدهای حقوقی عدم اطلاع گردشگر خارجی نسبت به قوانین کیفری ایران
|مجله برنامه ریزی و توسعه گردشگری|
|مقاله 3، دوره 5، شماره 17، تابستان و پاییز 1395، صفحه 49-64 اصل مقاله (299 K)|
|نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی|
|ابوالحسن شاکری 1؛ سید بهامین بابایی2|
|1دانشیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه مازندران|
|2کارشناس ارشد حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی|
|هر گردشگر خارجی که وارد ایران میگردد ممکن است مرتکب جرم شود و سپس ادعا نماید که به حکم یا موضوع یا مجازات غیر مطلع بوده است. به موجب ماده 155 قانون مجازات اسلامی، عدم اطلاع به قوانین جزا در هیچ جرمی قابل قبول نیست - به جزء در صورتی که در شرع مطلع بودن به حکم برای اثبات جرم لازم باشد -که در تمامی جرایم حدی به صراحت قانون در ماده 218 قانون مجازات اسلامی ادعای عدم اطلاع عذر در حکم خواهد بود و مدعی باید مطلع بودن وی را به شرع ثابت کند یا برای گردشگر خارجی طبق عادت مطلع بودن به جرم ارتکابی قابل تحصیل نباشد که وی باید آن را اثبات کند. ادعای عدم اطلاع گردشگر خارجی به نوع و میزان مجازات نیز اساساً مورد پذیرش نیست. عدم اطلاع به هر یک از عناصر موضوعی مقوم جرم، موجب زوال مسئولیت کیفری است، ولی در خصوص جرایم غیر عمدی عدم اطلاع به حکم یا موضوع یا مجازات بی تأثیر در زوال مسئولیت کیفری است، ولی میتواند موجب تخفیف مجازات گردد. مقاله حاضر مساله عدم اطلاع گردشگر خارجی را از چهار جهت زیر مورد بررسی قرار میدهد: 1- عدم اطلاع حکمی گردشگر خارجی، 2- عدم اطلاع موضوعی گردشگر خارجی، 3- عدم اطلاع گردشگر خارجی به مجازات 4- بار اثبات عدم اطلاع که بر عهده چه کسی است؟|
|گردشگر خارجی؛ عدم اطلاع؛ جرم؛ مجازات؛ مسئولیت کیفری|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|A Study of the Legal Consequences of Ignorance upon Criminal Liability of Foreign Tourists|
|Extended Abstract |
Foreign tourists who enter a country may commit crimes and then claim that they were not aware of the consequences of the crime they committed and the penalty involved. According to Article 155 of the Penal Code, failure in knowing about the criminal law is not acceptable except on occasions in which, according to Islamic Sharia, one is to be fully aware of the consequences of his/her actions. In all crimes, the law is explicit in Article 218 of the Penal Code that the claimant should prove that the person is fully familiar with sharia laws or for a foreign tourist who is accustomed to being aware is not obtainable under the charge and that he has to prove this. In all crime laws written expressly in Article 218 of the Penal Code lack of awareness would be tantamount to alleged failure of being informed about the penal code of a country. The claim that the foreign tourist was essentially unaware of the type and amount of punishment is not basically acceptable. Being uninformed about each of the thematic elements constituting a crime can cause the decline of criminal responsibility but when it comes to unintentional crimes being uniformed about a sentence or subject or punishment does not affect the decline of criminal responsibility but can make the punishment milder. The current paper will study the issue of a foreign tourist being uninformed about the criminal law of a country from four different perspectives: 1. Lack of information on legal issues related to foreign tourists 2. Lack of information on the subject of foreign tourism 3. A foreign tourist's lack of information about the issue of punishment in the host country 4. The burden of proving lack of information and the person who should bear it.
In the passage of time, human beings became more developed and wanted to travel to faraway places and meet new people and visit new places and come to know about other cultures and traditions. Travelling also enabled them to know more about the customs of other communities and helped them to see the historical and natural attractiveness of new places. This could in the long run help flourish the tourism industry especially in recent decades. Tourism can lead to the enhancement of the quality of life of the people and can create jobs.
In order to conduct a solid study of the issue of foreign tourists' awareness of the law of a host country, we will study the precepts of Islamic jurisprudence and law regulations. The purpose of the current paper is to clarify the legal issues related to foreign tourism in criminal cases when a foreign tourist is not informed about Iranian law.
Generally, the claim that one was not aware of the consequences of a crime is not admitted from a tourist and basically every one instinctively knows that acts like theft, rape, homicide, etc. are rated as crimes and thus unawareness cannot act as an excuse. But in Hodod crimes, the legislator presumes that perpetrator is correct by article 218 Islamic penalty code 1392. Of course, in such crimes as Moharebeh, rape and duress the act of claiming is not sufficient. It is similar to Taziry crimes which basically means that every person should know it. But it is probable that a foreign tourist doesn’t know about contractual crimes and the fact that they are different in different countries; gambling is a good example, it is admissible in some countries and inadmissible in some others. It is indeed negligence in being aware of Haraj rule, and he does not have any responsibility when a crime is committed; on the other hand, he is not compelled to learn the Iranian penalty code, unawareness to just penalty isn’t effective in responsibility of foreign tourist who commit that crime. But if it is proven that he was unaware of some of the subjective facts of the crimes committed he isn’t responsible.
As a general rule, after the issuance of orders the claim of unawareness is not acceptable; therefore, foreign tourists must prove that they lacked proper knowledge of the legal consequences of what they did. In a cases in which the perpetrator's awareness is one condition of the occurrence of a crime, the prosecutor must prove the awareness of the defendant and he must also prove facts of mens rea (mental subjects) and actus reus( material subjects).
Claim of unawareness will not be admitted unless it is proved that the foreign tourist was ignorant of the consequences of the crime he committed. But ignorance of a foreign tourist is not usually considered a legal excuse; in Hodod crimes, however, claim of unawareness is acceptable. Also in contractual crimes, the claim is acceptable because the condition of proving crimes is different in various countries. It is the prosecutor who must prove that the foreign tourist was unaware of the nature of the.
Keywords: Foreign Tourist, Ignorance, Crime, Punishment, Responsibility
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|کلیدواژه ها [English]|
|Foreign Tourist, Ignorance, crime, Punishment, Responsibility|
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