|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||2,520,977|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||1,781,377|
مدل سازی محصول خلاق گردشگری: بسط مدل 4پی (افراد، فرآیند، مکان و محصول)
|مجله برنامه ریزی و توسعه گردشگری|
|مقاله 9، دوره 5، شماره 18، پاییز و زمستان 1395، صفحه 179-201 اصل مقاله (501 K)|
|نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی|
|مصطفی محمدی 1؛ سید محمد میرتقیان رودسری2|
|1استادیار گروه مدیریت جهانگردی دانشگاه مازندران|
|2کارشناس ارشد مدیریت جهانگردی|
|محیط پویای صنعت گردشگری و نیز تغییرات آنی تقاضای گردشگران، لزوم ارایهی خدمات و محصولات خلاقانه را بسیار حیاتی نموده است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بسط و ارزیابی مدل 4پی (افراد، فرآیند، مکان و محصول) در زمینهی خلاقیت فعالان صنعت گردشگری صورت پذیرفت. این پژوهش کاربردی، کمّی و پیمایشی می باشد. جامعه ی آماری پژوهش شامل فعالان صنعت گردشگری در شهرستان رامسر به تعداد 1009 نفر بوده است. روش نمونه گیری، تصادفی ساده بود و حجم نمونه از طریق جدول مورگان، 278 نفر محاسبه شد. پس از توزیع 350 پرسشنامه، تعداد 324 پرسشنامه ی قابل استفاده جمع آوری گردید. بررسی فرضیه های پژوهش، از طریق تکنیک مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار لیزرل 54/8 انجام شد. یافته ها نشان داد که تمام روابط علّی موجود در مدل 4پی خلاقیت (تاثیرات افراد بر مکان، افراد بر فرآیند، مکان بر محصول و فرآیند بر محصول) معنادار بوده و تمامی فرضیه ها تایید شدند. بر اساس یافته ها، می توان نتیجه گرفت که لزوم ایجاد یکپارچگی در ویژگیهای خلاقیت (افراد، مکان، فرآیند و محصول) صنعت گردشگری ضروری بوده و تاکید بر عامل افراد خلاق و شناسایی آنها در هنگام جذب و استخدام حیاتی تر می باشد؛ زیرا آنها، زمینه ی بروز مکان کاری خلاق، فرآیند کاری خلاق و در نتیجه محصول خلاق را فراهم می سازند.|
|کارکنان خلاق؛ مکان خلاق؛ فرآیند خلاق؛ محصول خلاق؛ صنعت گردشگری|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|Tourism Creative Product Modeling: Development of 4P’s Model (People, Process, Place and Product)|
Dynamic environments of tourism industry and also immediate changes in tourist demands, have created the needs to provide creative products and services. This study aims to evaluate the 4P model (People, Process, Place and Product) in areas of Activists Creativity in Tourism Industry. This study used quantitative and survey research. And the population of the study consisted of activists of tourism industry in the city of Ramsar which itself consisted of 1009 people. The sampling method used was simple random and the sample included 278 participants through Morgan Table. After distributing 350 questionnaires, only 324 usable questionnaires were collected. Hypotheses Test was performed through techniques of structural equation modeling (SEM) by using LISREL 8.5 software. Findings showed that all relationships in the 4P model of creativity (the effects of people on place, of people on process, of place on Product and of process on Product) have significant coefficient and all the hypotheses have been confirmed. Creativity in Activists of Tourism Industry in the city of Ramsar needs to integrate its features (people, place, process and product), especially by focus on creative people and identify them during recruiting; because of it provide field of incidence creative place, creative work process and therefore creative product.
In recent studies of urban economies, tourism is listed as one of the most creative industries which not only attracts tourists, but also enhances economic development (Sleuwaegen & Boiardi, 2014). Creativity plays an essential role in obtaining an international competitive advantage because it is the manifestation of the wisdom and knowledge of human capital, which can transform creativity into value creation and offer individuals and organizations a sustained competitive advantage (Wu et al., 2014). Following the rapid development of the tourism industry, changing tourist demands and novelty idea needs, tourism organizations seem increasingly keen to develop employees’ creative potential, encourage creative motivation and provide incentive to develop creativity and innovation to attract tourists and develop distinction, economic spin-off and authenticity (Jarabkova & Hamada, 2012).
In early studies, has asserted that the creative thinking process is a problem-solving system adopted by the individual. The creativity aspects of the 4P (person, process, product, and place) model of “person”, “process”, “place”, and “product” have been raised in recent studies (Hansen et al., 2012; Peng , 2013). Tourism and hospitality researchers have yet to develop an integrated theoretical framework of the 4P model that explains the unique, independent effects of tourism organizations’ employees to help organizations more fully leverage the inﬂuence of the 4P model on creativity.
So the main question of this study is that "what relations are there between the 4P Model of Creativity (creative people, creative process, creative product and creative place) in tourism industry of Ramsar city?
Materials and Methods
This study, has been Quantitative, survey and applied research and was carried out during 1394 year (2015). Population of the study have formed from Activists of tourism industry to the number of 1009 people in the Ramsar city of Mazandaran Province. The sampling method was Simple random. Sample size Through Morgan table was calculated 278 participations. Research data were obtained through questionnaires. After distributing 350 questionnaires, were collected 324 complete and usable questionnaires. Validity of the questionnaire through convergent validity and reliability of the questionnaire by using Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability were examined that they were good and acceptable for all variables. Examines the hypotheses of the study was carried out through structural equation modeling technique by using LISREL 8.5 software package and SPSS22.
Discussion and Results
The present study aimed to develop and evaluate 4P model (people, process, place and product) in the field of employees' creativity in tourism industry. The results showed that creative people positively affect the Creative work place in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2013; Gange et al., 2012; Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007; Liu & Wall, 2006). Second sector of findings showed that creative people positively affect the Creative process in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2013; Gange et al., 2012; Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Moreover, it was found that creative work place positively affect the Creative product in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Dul et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2009; Schepers et al., 2007), and finally, It became clear that creative process positively affect the Creative product in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Zhang & Bartol, 2010; Horng & Hu).
Overall, it can be argued that factor of employee personality is one of the most important affecting on climate of business environment and creative process. Tourism organizations can increase your level of creativity through select people who have proactive personality. The employees with proactive personality, effectively participate in the exchange of information that it can lead to a friendly working environment. On the other hand, the creativity is dynamic factor that need to integrate in its process characteristics.
since the employees of tourism industry compared to other organizations and industries will experience more stress in their working environment, Recommended To the managers of the tourism organizations in Ramsar city, that in the selection of personnel and their employees, choose people that have positive attitude to their job, Because they not only encourage other employees to trust-oriented communications, but also motivate others in solving problems and difficult job, and affecting the process of creative thinking and improve organizational performance. Managers should constructively and accurately expand Positive working environment in order to foster creative people, creative environment and creative processes, creative products and performance through awareness to employee by using display innovative abortive efforts of people with negative personality at a time when employees encounter problems during the build creative process.
Keywords: Creative Employee, Creative Place, Creative Process, Creative Product, Tourism Industry.
Albright, J.J. (2014). Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Amos, LISREL, Mplus, Translated by Hussein Safari, Tehran: Jameh-Shenasan. (In Persian)
Amabile, T.M. (1996). Creativity and Innovation in Organizations, Boston: Harvard Business.
Amabile, T.M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J. and Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity, Academy of Management Journal, 39(5): 1154-1184.
Antoncic, J.A. and Antoncic, B. (2011). Employee satisfaction, intrapreneurship and firm growth: A model, Industrial Management & Data Systems, 111(4): 589-607.
Barbuto, J.E. and Wheeler, D.W. (2002). Becoming a Servant Leader: Do you Have What It Takes? Neb-Guide G02-1481-A, Lincoln: University of Nebraska, Nebraska Cooperative Extension.
Bateman, T.S. and Crant, J.M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates, Journal of Organizational Behavior, No.14: 103-118.
Bowen, D. (2002). Research through participant observation in tourism: A creative solution to the measurement of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction (CS/D) among tourists, Journal of Travel Research, 41(1): 4-14.
Brown, D.J., Cober, R.T., Kane, K., Levy, P.E. and Shalhoop, J. (2006). Proactive personality and the successful job search: A field investigation with college graduates, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3): 717-726.
Chang, J. (2011). Introduction: Entrepreneurship in tourism and hospitality: The role of SMEs, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 16(5): 467-469.
Chen, W.J. (2011). Innovation in hotel services: Culture and personality, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1): 64-72.
Chiva, R., Ghauri, P. and Alegre, J. (2014). Organizational learning, innovation and internationalization: A complex system model, British Journal of Management, 25(4): 687-705.
Choi, J.N., Anderson, T.A. and Veillette, A. (2009). Contextual inhibitors of employee creativity in organizations the insulating role of creative ability, Group & Organization Management, 34(3): 330-357.
Coelho, F., Augusto, M. and Lages, L.F. (2011). Contextual factors and the creativity of frontline employees: The mediating effects of role stress and intrinsic motivation, Journal of Retailing, 87(1): 31-45.
Druskat, V.U. and Pescosolido, A.T. (2002). The content of effective teamwork mental models in self-managing teams: Ownership, learning and heedful interrelating, Human Relations, 55(3), 283-314.
Dul, J., Ceylan, C. and Jaspers, F. (2011). Knowledge workers’ creativity and the role of the physical work environment, Human Resource Management, 50(6): 715-734.
DuToit, S. and DuToit, M. (2006). Interactive LISREL: User's Guide, Translated by Ali Dellavar, Hassan-Ali Veis-Karami & Mohammad Zarrinjoee, Tehran: Arasbaran. (In Persian)
Fairbank, J.F. and Williams, S.D. (2001). Motivating creativity and enhancing innovation through employee suggestion system technology, Creativity and Innovation Management; 10(2): 68-74.
Frese, M. and Fay, D. (2001). 4. Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st century, Research in Organizational Behavior, 23, 133-187.
Gilson, L.L. and Shalley, C.E. (2004). A little creativity goes a long way: An examination of teams’ engagement in creative processes, Journal of Management, 30(4): 453-470.
Gong, Y., Huang, J.C. and Farh, J.L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy, Academy of Management Journal, 52(4): 765-778.
Gong, Y., Cheung, S.Y., Wang, M. and Huang, J.C. (2012). Unfolding the proactive process for creativity integration of the employee proactivity, information exchange, and psychological safety perspectives, Journal of Management, 38(5): 1611-1633.
Grant, A.M. and Ashford, S.J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work, Research in Organizational Behavior, No. 28: 3-34.
Greene, R. (2013). Multiple models of creativity. In E. G. Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (pp. 1321–1339), New York: Springer.
Hansen, D.J., Monllor, J. and McMurchie, L. (2012). Opportunity development: An exploratory study of ecopreneurs using a creativity perspective, Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 14(1): 27-39.
Horng, J.S. and Hu, M.L. (2008). The mystery in the kitchen: Culinary creativity, Creativity Research Journal, 20(2): 221-230.
Horng, J.S., Tsai, C.Y., Liu, C.H.C. and Chung, D.Y.C. (2015). Measuring Employee's Creativity: A new theoretical model and empirical study for tourism industry, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(12): 1353-1373.
Horng, J.S., Tsai, C.Y., Yang, T.C., Liu, C.H.C. and Hu, D.C. (2016a). Exploring the relationship between proactive personality, work environment and employee creativity among tourism and hospitality employees, International Journal of Hospitality Management, No. 54: 25-34.
Horng, J.S., Tsai, C.Y. and Chung, Y.C. (2016b). Measuring practitioners’ creativity in the Taiwanese tourism and hospitality industry, Thinking Skills and Creativity, No. 19: 269-278.
Hu, M.L., Horng, J.S. and Sun, Y.H. (2009). Hospitality teams: Knowledge sharing and service innovation performance, Tourism Management, 30(1): 41-50.
Jarabkova, J. and Hamada, M. (2012). Creativity and rural tourism, Creative and Knowledge Society, 2(2): 5-15.
Li, Y.Q. and Liu, C.H. (2016). How to establish a creative atmosphere in tourism and hospitality education in the context of China, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, No.18: 9-20
Liao, H., Liu, D. and Loi, R. (2010). Looking at both sides of the social exchange coin: A social cognitive perspective on the joint effects of relationship quality and differentiation on creativity, Academy of Management Journal, 53(5): 1090-1109.
Lubart, T.I. (2001). Models of the creative process: Past, present and future, Creativity Research Journal, 13(3-4): 295-308.
Major, D.A., Turner, J.E. and Fletcher, T.D. (2006). Linking proactive personality and the big five to motivation to learn and development activity, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4): 927-935.
Mumford, M.D. (2001). Something old, something new: Revisiting Guilford’s conception of creative problem solving, Creativity Research Journal, 13(3-4): 267-276.
Oldham, G.R. and Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work, Academy of Management Journal, 39(3): 607-634.
Peng, K.L., Lin, M.C. and Baum, T. (2013). The constructing model of culinary creativity: An approach of mixed methods, Quality & Quantity, 47(5): 2687-2707.
Raminmehr, H. and Charsetad, P. (2013). Quantitative Research Method with Using Structural Equation Modeling (LISREL Software), Tehran: termeh. (In Persian)
Rhodes, M. (1961). an analysis of creativity, The Phi Delta Kappan, 42(7): 305-310.
Richards, G. and Wilson, J. (2006). Developing creativity in tourist experiences: A solution to the serial reproduction of culture?, Tourism Management, 27(6): 1209-1223.
Richards, G. (2011). Creativity and tourism: The state of the art, Annals of Tourism, 38(4): 1225-1253.
Richards, G. (2014). Creativity and tourism in the city, Current Issues in Tourism, 17(2): 119-144.
Sadikoglu, E. and Zehir, C. (2010). Investigating the effects of innovation and employee performance on the relationship between total quality management practices and firm performance: An empirical study of Turkish firms, International Journal of Production Economics, 127(1): 13-26.
Schepers, P. and Van den Berg, P.T. (2007). Social factors of work-environment creativity, Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(3): 407-428.
Seibert, S.E., Crant, J.M. and Kraimer, M.L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success, Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(3): 416-427.
Shalley, C.E., Gilson, L.L. and Blum, T.C. (2000). Matching creativity requirements and the work environment: Effects on satisfaction and intentions to leave, Academy of Management Journal, 43(2): 215-223.
Shalley, C.E., Zhou, J. and Oldham, G.R. (2004). The effects of personal and contextual characteristics on creativity: Where should we go from here?, Journal of Management, 30(6): 933-958.
Shin, S.J. and Zhou, J. (2007). When is educational specialization heterogeneity related to creativity in research and development teams? Transformational leadership as a moderator, Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6): 1709-1721.
Sleuwaegen, L. and Boiardi, P. (2014). Creativity and regional innovation: Evidence from EU regions, Research Policy, 43(9): 1508-1522.
Soteriou, E.C. and Coccossis, H. (2010). Integrating sustainability into the strategic planning of national tourism organizations, Journal of Travel Research, 49(2): 191-205.
Spanjol, J., Tam, L., and Tam, V. (2014). Employer– employee congruence in environmental values: An exploration of effects on job satisfaction and creativity, Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1): 117-130.
Stevenson, D. and Matthews, A. (Eds.). (2013). Culture and the city: Creativity, tourism, leisure, Oxon: Routledge.
Stokols, D., Clitheroe, C. and Zmuidzinas, M. (2002). Qualities of work environments that promote perceived support for creativity, Creativity Research Journal, 4(2): 137-147.
Sousa, C. M., and Coelho, F. (2011). From personal values to creativity: Evidence from frontline service employees, European Journal of Marketing, 45(7/8): 1029-1050.
Tajzadeh, A. and Khazaee, M. (2015). The impact of customer-orientation and entrepreneurial- orientation on Innovation and business performance in Tourism (the case of Travel agencies in Mazandaran Province), Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 4(13): 187-205. (In Persian)
Tanggaard, L. (2013). The socio materiality of creativity in everyday life, Culture & Psychology, 19(1): 20-32.
Wenjing, C.A.I., Wei, S.O.N.G. and Shuliang, Z.H.A.O. (2013). An empirical study on the effects of creative personality and job autonomy on individual innovation performance of knowledge workers, International Business and Management, 6(2): 24-30.
Wu, H.Y., Wu, H.S., Chen, I.S. and Chen, H.C. (2014). Exploring the critical influential factors of creativity for college students: A multiple criteria decision making approach, Thinking Skills and Creativity, No. 11: 1-21.
Yaghobi, N.M., Ebrahimpour, H. and Nematti, V. (2015). The typology of customer and its role in innovation of hotels (Case study: Ardabil Hotels), Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 4(15): 8-23. (In Persian)
Zhang, X. and Bartol, K.M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, andcreative process engagement, Academy of Management Journal, 53(1): 107-128.
Zhou, J. and George, J.M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice, Academy of Management Journal, 44(4): 682-696.
Zhou, J. (2003). When the presence of creative coworkers is related to creativity: Role of supervisor close monitoring, developmental feedback, and creative personality, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3): 413-422.
Zhou, J. and Shalley, C.E. (2008). Handbook of organizational creativity, New York: Erlbaum.
Zhu, W., Newman, A., Miao, Q. and Hooke, A. (2013). Revisiting the mediating role of trust in transformational leadership effects: Do different types of trust make a difference?, The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1): 94-105.
Zukin, S. (2010). Naked city: The death and life of authentic urban places, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
|کلیدواژه ها [English]|
|Creative Employee, Creative Place, Creative Process, Creative Product, Tourism Industry|
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 11,406
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 1,567