|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||6,243,698|
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|مطالعات برنامه ریزی آموزشی|
|دوره 11، شماره 21، شهریور 1401، صفحه 165-182 اصل مقاله (1.06 M)|
|نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22080/eps.2023.23990.2136|
|فرشته علیزاده1؛ امیرحسین محمودی* 2؛ مهدی محمودی3|
|1دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی مدیریت آموزش عالی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.|
|2استادیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی و آموزش عالی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.|
|3دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران|
|تاریخ دریافت: 30 تیر 1401، تاریخ بازنگری: 23 دی 1401، تاریخ پذیرش: 22 بهمن 1401|
|چکیده :هدف اصلی این مقاله شناسایی ابعاد و مولفه های تجاری سازی دانش در نظام آموزش عالی ایران با تکنیک تحلیل مضمون و دیمتل است. روش انجام پژوهش آمیخته(کیفی-کمی) است، جامعه تحقیق ، خبرگان دارای تجارب علمی و عملی در خصوص موضوع می باشند که با روش گلوله برفی شناسایی گردید، در گام نخست و کیفی، علاوه بر مطالعۀ اسنادی، پس از انجام 16 مصاحبه، اشباع نظری احصاء ‘گردید و از تکنیک تحلیل مضمون با نرم افزار MAXQDA12 ، برای شناسایی ابعاد و مؤلفه ها و شاخص ها استفاده شده است.برای سنجش روایی و پایایی مصاحبه ها، همزمان با 2نفر به عنوان همکار در تحلیل و با همانند یابی آنها در مبانی نظری هم انجام شد. در نهایت مضامین پایه، سازمان دهنده و فراگیر استخراج گردید. در بخش کمی برای تعیین میزان تاثیرگذاری و تاثیرپذیری ابعاد تجاری سازی دانش در نظام آموزش عالی ایران از تکنیک دیمتل استفاده شده است. با توجه به مصاحبه های نیمه ساختار یافته، 6 بعد(عوامل محیطی، ساختار سازمانی،ویژگی ذهنی خالقین دانش، ویژگی های دانش خلق شده، ویژگی های مصرف کنندگان دانش و نوع دانش) و 25 مولفه ( مضامین سازمان دهنده ) و 87 شاخص ( مضامین پایه ) برای تجاری سازی دانش در نظام آموزش عالی ایران استخراج گردید. پس از آن با توجه به پرسشنامه مقایسات زوجی برای شناسایی ابعاد تاثیرگذار و تاثیرپذیر، مشخص گردید که ویژگی های مصرف کنندگان دانش، ساختار سازمانی، عوامل محیطی، ویژگی های دانش خلق شده، نوع دانش و ویژگی ذهنی خالقین دانش به ترتیب از تاثیرگذاری بیشتری برخوردارند.|
|تجاری سازی؛ تجاری سازی دانش؛ نظام آموزش عالی ایران|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|Identification of Components and Indicators of Knowledge Commercialization in the Iranian Higher Education System Using Content Analysis and DEMATEL Technique|
|Fereshteh Alizadeh1؛ Amirhosein Mahmodi2؛ Mahdi Mahmodi3|
|1PhD student in Higher Education Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.|
|2Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Management and Higher Education, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.|
|3Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.|
|Abstract :The main aim of this study is to identify the dimensions and components of knowledge commercialization in the Iranian higher education system using thematic analysis and DEMATEL technique. The method of present study was mixed (qualitative-quantitative). The statistical population of the study included experts who have scientific and practical experiences on the subject. They were identified by the snowball method. In the first and qualitative step, in addition to documentary study, after 16 interviews, theoretical saturation was obtained. Also, thematic analysis technique and MAXQDA12 software were used to identify the dimensions, components and indicators. To assess the validity of the interviews, the opinions of 2 colleagues were used. Finally, basic, organizing and comprehensive themes were extracted. In the quantitative section, DEMATEL technique was used to determine the impact and effectiveness of the dimensions of knowledge commercialization in the Iranian higher education system. According to semi-structured interviews, 6 dimensions (environmental factors, organizational structure, mental characteristics of knowledge creators, characteristics of created knowledge, characteristics of knowledge consumers and type of knowledge) and 25 components (organizing themes) and 87 indicators (basic themes) were extracted for the knowledge commercialization in the Iranian higher education system. Then, according to the pairwise comparison questionnaire to identify effective and influential dimensions, it was found that the characteristics of knowledge consumers, organizational structure, environmental factors, characteristics of created knowledge, type of knowledge and mental characteristics of knowledge creators, respectively, have higher importance.|
|Commercialization, Knowledge Commercialization, Iranian Higher Education System|
Nowadays, special attention is paid to the role of universities in the economic activities of society in many developed and developing societies. Research policy makers seek to use technology and the knowledge generated by universities as much as possible in the industrial sector and accordingly turn theoretical knowledge into practical knowledge. It has added the role of economic activity to teaching and research roles of universities. For this reason, the primary and traditional roles of universities, as providers of education and generators of scientific knowledge, are changing to entrepreneurial universities all over the world, and universities play the roles of knowledge commercialization in the development of private companies in the local and regional economy (Etzkowize, 2003, quoted in Wong & Singh 2013). Scientific and technical ability is undoubtedly the most obvious indicator of a country’s development. Increasing scientific capacity cannot be the source of public welfare and human wealth if it is not turned to practice and its benefits are not provided to the society. In Iran, economic changes and transformations, both in the area of allocation of resources and in the area of changing the economic paradigm have made officials, policy makers and universities to pay attention to this issue in the fifth and fourth plans of economic and social development and the twenty-year vision document. The law has predicted duties of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, with the provision of various legal articles to commercialize research and its executive mechanisms. Thus, it can be stated the commercialization of knowledge is a key issue for obtaining financial resources. The important point in this regard is that the models of knowledge commercialization will definitely be different owing to the differences in the factors and challenges of developing countries compared to the developed countries in the world. Hence, to solve these challenges in developing countries including Iran, it is necessary to pay attention to the knowledge of the components of the commercialization model, so that an appropriate model with considering its institutional and local characteristics can be designed, proposed and presented. The present study was an attempt to identify the model of commercialization of knowledge by using appropriate methods. This issue will be examined by using different analyses of the different mindsets of people towards this issue. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer the key of question of what dimensions and components can be identified to explain the commercialization of knowledge in Iran's higher education system given the special characteristics of Iran as a developing country. Therefore, this study seeks to identify the dimensions and components affecting the commercialization of knowledge in Iran’s higher education system. national interests require us to make the most use of the available resources and knowledge. Without a doubt, the total acquired knowledge cannot provide the causes of development without influencing the production and improvement of methods. Therefore, the university must provide the progress and development of the society by improving its scientific position and proper function. Therefore, the commercialization of knowledge is a turning point in converting an idea into a marketable product or service. The process of transforming science into action or science into wealth is a learning process that can be performed through the participation of the country's higher education system in the field of action. Considering the necessity and importance of this question in this article, we seek to identify the dimensions, components and indicators of the commercialization of knowledge in the higher education system by analyzing the theme and DIMATEL.
This study is conducted in a mixed (qualitative-quantitative) form to achieve the research purpose. In the first and qualitative step, we identified the basic, organizing and comprehensive themes through the semi-structured interview and thematic analysis technique. Here we benefited from Maxqda software. In the second and quantitative step, we applied the DIMATEL technique using experts' opinions. We carried out this technique with the following steps: forming a direct correlation matrix, normalizing the direct correlation matrix, calculating the complete matrix, creating a causal diagram and drawing the criteria position. The sampling method in this research is snowball.
In the first qualitative phase, we identified the dimensions, components and indicators of knowledge commercialization in the country's higher education system through the theoretical foundations and interviews with experts. It shows that the dimensions of knowledge commercialization include six dimensions (environmental factors, organizational structure, the mental characteristics of knowledge creators, the characteristics of created knowledge, and the characteristics of knowledge consumers). The components of knowledge commercialization in the country's higher education system include 25 components sucg as the government's view of commercialization, the property rights of mind and thinking, the inherent ability of the market, culture of consumption, types of knowledge, Macro (general) infrastructures and equipment, micro (specialized) infrastructures, people's attitude towards commercialization, knowledge creation motivation, knowledge self-efficacy, cluster thinking, knowledge morality, the attractiveness of knowledge, validity of knowledge, the usefulness of knowledge, the permanence of knowledge, attitude towards knowledge, need management, the perceived value of knowledge, satisfaction with knowledge, ethics in purchasing knowledge, brand loyalty, general knowledge and specialized knowledge.
Eighty-four indicators were also identified in the text of the article. In the second and quantitative step, we identified the influence of dimensions and the cause and effect relationships between them through the paired questionnaire as one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods. Thus, it allowed a greater understanding of the identified dimensions and the type of relationships between them.
The results obtained from the questionnaire of paired comparisons for identifying the influential dimensions, we found that the characteristics of knowledge consumers, organizational structure, environmental factors, and the characteristics of created knowledge are more influential, respectively, because they are of causal aspect and positive D-R
Funding : There is no funding support
Conflict of interest: Authors declared no conflict of interest
Acknowledgments: We appreciate those respected experts who helped the researcher collect the data.
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